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Complete guide to

Mastering Pinia

written by its creator

Defining a Store

Before diving into core concepts, we need to know that a store is defined using defineStore() and that it requires a unique name, passed as the first argument:

import { defineStore } from 'pinia'

// You can name the return value of `defineStore()` anything you want,
// but it's best to use the name of the store and surround it with `use`
// and `Store` (e.g. `useUserStore`, `useCartStore`, `useProductStore`)
// the first argument is a unique id of the store across your application
export const useAlertsStore = defineStore('alerts', {
  // other options...

This name, also referred to as id, is necessary and is used by Pinia to connect the store to the devtools. Naming the returned function use... is a convention across composables to make its usage idiomatic.

defineStore() accepts two distinct values for its second argument: a Setup function or an Options object.

Option Stores

Similar to Vue's Options API, we can also pass an Options Object with state, actions, and getters properties.

export const useCounterStore = defineStore('counter', {
  state: () => ({ count: 0, name: 'Eduardo' }),
  getters: {
    doubleCount: (state) => state.count * 2,
  actions: {
    increment() {

You can think of state as the data of the store, getters as the computed properties of the store, and actions as the methods.

Option stores should feel intuitive and simple to get started with.

Setup Stores

There is also another possible syntax to define stores. Similar to the Vue Composition API's setup function, we can pass in a function that defines reactive properties and methods and returns an object with the properties and methods we want to expose.

export const useCounterStore = defineStore('counter', () => {
  const count = ref(0)
  const name = ref('Eduardo')
  const doubleCount = computed(() => count.value * 2)
  function increment() {

  return { count, name, doubleCount, increment }

In Setup Stores:

  • ref()s become state properties
  • computed()s become getters
  • function()s become actions

Note you must return all state properties in setup stores for pinia to pick them up as state. In other words, you cannot have private state properties in stores. Not returning all state properties can break SSR, devtools, and other plugins.

Setup stores bring a lot more flexibility than Option Stores as you can create watchers within a store and freely use any composable. However, keep in mind that using composables will get more complex when using SSR.

Setup stores are also able to rely on globally provided properties like the Router or the Route. Any property provided at the App level can be accessed from the store using inject(), just like in components:

import { inject } from 'vue'
import { useRoute } from 'vue-router'

export const useSearchFilters = defineStore('search-filters', () => {
  const route = useRoute()
  // this assumes `app.provide('appProvided', 'value')` was called
  const appProvided = inject('appProvided')

  // ...

  return {
    // ...


Do not return properties like route or appProvided (from the example above) as they do not belong to the store itself and you can directly access them within components with useRoute() and inject('appProvided').

What syntax should I pick?

As with Vue's Composition API and Options API, pick the one that you feel the most comfortable with. If you're not sure, try Option Stores first.

Using the store

We are defining a store because the store won't be created until use...Store() is called within a component <script setup> (or within setup() like all composables):

<script setup>
import { useCounterStore } from '@/stores/counter'

// access the `store` variable anywhere in the component ✨
const store = useCounterStore()


If you are not using setup components yet, you can still use Pinia with map helpers.

You can define as many stores as you want and you should define each store in a different file to get the most out of Pinia (like automatically allowing your bundler to code split and providing TypeScript inference).

Once the store is instantiated, you can access any property defined in state, getters, and actions directly on the store. We will look at these in detail in the next pages but autocompletion will help you.

Note that store is an object wrapped with reactive, meaning there is no need to write .value after getters but, like props in setup, we cannot destructure it:

<script setup>
import { useCounterStore } from '@/stores/counter'
const store = useCounterStore()
// ❌ This won't work because it breaks reactivity
// it's the same as destructuring from `props`
const { name, doubleCount } = store
name // will always be "Eduardo"
doubleCount // will always be 0

setTimeout(() => {
}, 1000)

// ✅ this one will be reactive
// 💡 but you could also just use `store.doubleCount` directly
const doubleValue = computed(() => store.doubleCount)

Destructuring from a Store

In order to extract properties from the store while keeping its reactivity, you need to use storeToRefs(). It will create refs for every reactive property. This is useful when you are only using state from the store but not calling any action. Note you can destructure actions directly from the store as they are bound to the store itself too:

<script setup>
import { useCounterStore } from '@/stores/counter'
import { storeToRefs } from 'pinia'

const store = useCounterStore()
// `name` and `doubleCount` are reactive refs
// This will also extract refs for properties added by plugins
// but skip any action or non reactive (non ref/reactive) property
const { name, doubleCount } = storeToRefs(store)
// the increment action can just be destructured
const { increment } = store

Released under the MIT License.