Introduction

Pinia started as an experiment to redesign what a Store for Vue could look like with the Composition API around November 2019. Since then, the initial principles have remained the same, but Pinia works for both Vue 2 and Vue 3 and doesn't require you to use the composition API. The API is the same for both except for installation and SSR, and these docs are targeted to Vue 3 with notes about Vue 2 whenever necessary so it can be read by Vue 2 and Vue 3 users!

Why should I use Pinia?

Pinia is a store library for Vue, it allows you to share a state across components/pages. If you are familiar with the Composition API, you might be thinking you can already share a global state with a simple export const state = reactive({}). This is true for single page applications but exposes your application to security vulnerabilities if it is server side rendered. But even in small single page applications, you get a lot from using Pinia:

  • Devtools support
    • A timeline to track actions, mutations
    • Stores appear in components where they are used
    • Time travel and easier debugging
  • Hot module replacement
    • Modify your stores without reloading your page
    • Keep any existing state while developing
  • Plugins: extend Pinia features with plugins
  • Proper TypeScript support or autocompletion for JS users
  • Server Side Rendering Support
Vue Mastery Logo Get the Pinia Cheat Sheet from Vue Mastery

Basic example

This is what using Pinia looks like in terms of API (make sure to check the Getting Started for complete instructions). You start by creating a store:

// stores/counter.js
import { defineStore } from 'pinia'

export const useCounterStore = defineStore('counter', {
  state: () => {
    return { count: 0 }
  },
  // could also be defined as
  // state: () => ({ count: 0 })
  actions: {
    increment() {
      this.count++
    },
  },
})

And then you use it in a component:

import { useCounterStore } from '@/stores/counter'

export default {
  setup() {
    const counter = useCounterStore()

    counter.count++
    // with autocompletion ✨
    counter.$patch({ count: counter.count + 1 })
    // or using an action instead
    counter.increment()
  },
}

You can even use a function (similar to a component setup()) to define a Store for more advanced use cases:

export const useCounterStore = defineStore('counter', () => {
  const count = ref(0)
  function increment() {
    count.value++
  }

  return { count, increment }
})

If you are still not into setup() and Composition API, don't worry, Pinia also supports a similar set of map helpers like Vuex. You define stores the same way but then use mapStores(), mapState(), or mapActions():

const useCounterStore = defineStore('counter', {
  state: () => ({ count: 0 }),
  getters: {
    double: (state) => state.count * 2,
  },
  actions: {
    increment() {
      this.count++
    },
  },
})

const useUserStore = defineStore('user', {
  // ...
})

export default {
  computed: {
    // other computed properties
    // ...
    // gives access to this.counterStore and this.userStore
    ...mapStores(useCounterStore, useUserStore),
    // gives read access to this.count and this.double
    ...mapState(useCounterStore, ['count', 'double']),
  },
  methods: {
    // gives access to this.increment()
    ...mapActions(useCounterStore, ['increment']),
  },
}

You will find more information about each map helper in the core concepts.

Why Pinia

Pinia (pronounced /piːnjʌ/, like "peenya" in English) is the closest word to piña (pineapple in Spanish) that is a valid package name. A pineapple is in reality a group of individual flowers that join together to create a multiple fruit. Similar to stores, each one is born individually, but they are all connected at the end. It's also a delicious tropical fruit indigenous to South America.

A more realistic example

Here is a more complete example of the API you will be using with Pinia with types even in JavaScript. For some people, this might be enough to get started without reading further but we still recommend checking the rest of the documentation or even skipping this example and coming back once you have read about all of the Core Concepts.

import { defineStore } from 'pinia'

export const useTodos = defineStore('todos', {
  state: () => ({
    /** @type {{ text: string, id: number, isFinished: boolean }[]} */
    todos: [],
    /** @type {'all' | 'finished' | 'unfinished'} */
    filter: 'all',
    // type will be automatically inferred to number
    nextId: 0,
  }),
  getters: {
    finishedTodos(state) {
      // autocompletion! ✨
      return state.todos.filter((todo) => todo.isFinished)
    },
    unfinishedTodos(state) {
      return state.todos.filter((todo) => !todo.isFinished)
    },
    /**
     * @returns {{ text: string, id: number, isFinished: boolean }[]}
     */
    filteredTodos(state) {
      if (this.filter === 'finished') {
        // call other getters with autocompletion ✨
        return this.finishedTodos
      } else if (this.filter === 'unfinished') {
        return this.unfinishedTodos
      }
      return this.todos
    },
  },
  actions: {
    // any amount of arguments, return a promise or not
    addTodo(text) {
      // you can directly mutate the state
      this.todos.push({ text, id: this.nextId++, isFinished: false })
    },
  },
})

Comparison with Vuex

Pinia started out as an exploration of what the next iteration of Vuex could look like, incorporating many ideas from core team discussions for Vuex 5. Eventually, we realized that Pinia already implements most of what we wanted in Vuex 5, and decided to make it the new recommendation instead.

Compared to Vuex, Pinia provides a simpler API with less ceremony, offers Composition-API-style APIs, and most importantly, has solid type inference support when used with TypeScript.

RFCs

Initially Pinia didn't go through any RFC process. I tested out ideas based on my experience developing applications, reading other people's code, working for clients who use Pinia, and answering questions on Discord. This allowed me to provide a solution that works and is adapted to a variety of cases and application sizes. I used to publish often and made the library evolve while keeping its core API the same.

Now that Pinia has become the default state management solution, it is subject to the same RFC process as other core libraries in the Vue ecosystem and its API has entered a stable state.

Comparison with Vuex 3.x/4.x

Vuex 3.x is Vuex for Vue 2 while Vuex 4.x is for Vue 3

Pinia API is very different from Vuex ≤4, namely:

  • mutations no longer exist. They were often perceived as extremely verbose. They initially brought devtools integration but that is no longer an issue.
  • No need to create custom complex wrappers to support TypeScript, everything is typed and the API is designed in a way to leverage TS type inference as much as possible.
  • No more magic strings to inject, import the functions, call them, enjoy autocompletion!
  • No need to dynamically add stores, they are all dynamic by default and you won't even notice. Note you can still manually use a store to register it whenever you want but because it is automatic you don't need to worry about it.
  • No more nested structuring of modules. You can still nest stores implicitly by importing and using a store inside another but Pinia offers a flat structuring by design while still enabling ways of cross composition among stores. You can even have circular dependencies of stores.
  • No namespaced modules. Given the flat architecture of stores, "namespacing" stores is inherent to how they are defined and you could say all stores are namespaced.

For more detailed instructions on how to convert an existing Vuex ≤4 project to use Pinia, see the Migration from Vuex Guide.